Labour Mobility refers to the capacity and ability of labour to move from one place to another place or from one occupation to another occupation or from one job to another job or from one industry to another industry. It is an overall movement of a person.
Types of Labour Mobility
There are three types of labour mobility such as geographical, occupational and Industries.
1. Geographical Mobility
Geographical mobility means a worker’s ability to move from one place to another within a country or from one country to another country. For example, the movement of Labour from Matara to Puttalam or from Sri Lanka to Australia is geographical mobility
2. Occupational Mobility
Worker’s movement from one occupation to another occupation refers to Occupational Mobility. It is further divided into two categories.
Horizontal Mobility – The transfer of an employee from one place to another at the same level or grade is called horizontal mobility. For example, an accounts clerk joins as a bank clerk in a company.
Vertical Mobility – Vertical Mobility is the movement of an employee working in an organization from a lower grade and status moves to another occupation in a higher grade and status. For example, a school teacher becomes a university lecturer.
3. Mobility between industries
Mobility between industries is the movement of an employee working in an organization from one industry to another in the same occupation. For example, a fitter leaving a steel mill and joining an automobile factory.
Factors Determining Mobility of Labour
There are many factors that determine labour mobility. They are as follows,
Educational and Training: The mobility of labour depends on the level of education and training of labour. If the labour is more educated and skilled, there are greater chances of moving from one occupation or place to another. Geographical and vertical mobility depends on the education and training of labour.
Outlook or urge: The outlook or urge in a worker’s life creates the need to move away from his job, if labour has broad-mindedness and self-confidence, he will move from one job to another job or one place to another place. Differences in language, habits, religion, caste etc. will not hinder their mobility.
Social Set-up: Labour mobility is depending upon on social setup. A caste system and joint family system influence in labour mobility.
Means of Transport: Well-developed transportation and communication will encourage labour mobility. The employee knows that in case of an emergency at home. He can easily communicate with his family or else travel back home
Agriculture Development: With agricultural development, labour moves from high-population areas to low-population areas during busy seasons.
Industrialization: In industrialization also leads to urbanization and workers should move from rural and semi-urban areas to industrial cities.
Importance or Advantages of Mobility of Labour
To the worker himself: Workers who move from rural areas to urban areas or to other countries for work can improve their opportunities. They are able to enrich themselves economically.
Helpful and useful for improving the structure of Industry: If labour is mobile they will be withdrawn from decaying industries and can be diverted to expanding industries.
Mobility of Labour cheeks unemployment: Employees move away from places where their labour does not seem to be needed and go to places where their labour seems to be needed. In this way, unemployment will be reduced.
Special Problems of Labour Mobility
The geographical Mobility of Labour is being obstructed by the following factors,
- Monetary cost of movement
- Geographical environment changes
- Social relations and social ties
- Accommodation problems in cities are acute
- Political and communal factors
Occupational Mobility of Labour is obstructed by several factors and they are as follows,
- Age restrictions retrain people from moving.
- Difference in ability
- Job meant for particular sex
- Long period of training and education
- Trade unionism
These are some special problems that occur in Labour Mobility.
In a conclusion, an organization should undertake labour mobility in order to identify the problems caused by labour mobility and come up with appropriate methods to solve them and increases its benefits. The mobility of labour is beneficial not only to the worker himself but also to the nation at large.